Great Mormon Butterfly Papilio memnon

Great Mormon Butterfly male
Great Mormon Butterfly female
The Great Mormon Butterfly is native to South and Southeast Asia and Australasia. One of the swallowtail family, it is a large butterfly with a wingspan of 130-150mm.
The male (above left) and the female (above right) look very different. Moreover, there are some 14 subspecies over its range and many different forms.
Great Mormon Butterfly male
Great Mormon Butterfly male
Great Mormon Butterfly male
The male Great Mormon has four recognised forms, mainly black with blue streaked hind wings and usually no tail. He may or may not have red "shoulders" on the top side.
Great Mormon Butterfly male
Great Mormon Butterfly male
Great Mormon Butterfly male
The male Great Mormon has has red "shoulders" and red and blue markings on the underside. The red hind wing marks are reminiscent of the Scarlet Mormon male.
Great Mormon Butterfly female tailed
Great Mormon Butterfly female tailless
Great Mormon Butterfly female tailless
The female has some two dozen recognised forms, some with tails, some without, in addition to variation among individuals. Some forms mimic other distasteful Swallowtail butterflies (eg Pink Rose, Blue Mormon). Tailless forms include agenor (hind wing streaked blue like the male plus red eye-spots), polymnestoroides (mimics Blue Mormon), butlerianus (wings dark like male with streaked blue hind wing), esperi (like male but with large white patches on forewing, Pink Rose mimic). Tailed forms include alcanor (has yellow sides to abdomen), achates and distantianus.
Great Mormon Butterfly female With yellow on hind wings and black body -- may be subspecies lowii, similar to species Papilio lowii, the Great Yellow Mormon?
Great Mormon Butterfly female With orange and a pale yellow body
Great Mormon Butterfly female With pink around eye-spots, yellow body and thick black veins rounded like chainmail