The male Spanish Sparrow has darker, sharper markings than the northern House Sparrow,
an all-brown "hairstyle" head, a bandit mask with broken white eyebrow and a streaky body.
The female Spanish Sparrow also has stronger markings than her northern House Sparrow counterpart,
with light streaking on her front and a more patterned back/wings.
The male in breeding plumage has brighter chestnut on head and wings, more black, especially chin/bib/chest/streaks, contrasted with brighter white on face and body.
Also his beak turns from horn-coloured to black in breeding plumage (and he helps to gather nesting materials).
The adult male's beak is horn-coloured (also see below) in non-breeding plumage, rather than black.
A juvenile male with chestnut head but no black eyeliner/bib yet
The range of the Spanish Sparrow includes S/SE Spain, Canaries, Morocco, S Italy, some of the Mediterranean and Central Asia. House Sparrows (throughout Eurasia), Italian Sparrows (north/central Italy, some of France/Switzerland/Austria) and Eurasian Tree Sparrows are also present for much of the Spanish Sparrow range and hybrids abound.
Female Spanish Sparrow
The female has less strong body streaking than the male but more than the female House Sparrow.